### Number Systems :-

Table of Contents

When we type certain letters or words into a computer, the computer turns them into numbers because computers can only understand numbers. A computer can understand the position number system, where there are only a few symbols called digits and these symbols represent different values depending on the position in the number.

The language we use to communicate with each other consists of words and letters. We understand numbers, letters and words. But computers only understand numbers. And when we enter the data, the data is converted into an electronic pulse.

**Types of Number Systems :-**

o Binary number system

o Octal number system

o Decimal number system

o Hexadecimal number system

**Binary Number Systems :-**

It has only two digits ‘0’ and ‘1’, hence its base is assumed to be 2. Accordingly, in this numbering system, there are only two types of electronic pulse. The absence of an electronic pulse that does ‘0’ and the presence of an electronic pulse is ‘1’. Each digit is called a bit. It consists of a group of four bits (1101) called nibble and a group of eight bits (11001010) is called a byte.

**Octal Number Systems :-**

The octal number system has eight digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), so its base is 8.. Each number in an octave represents a specific power of its base (8). Since there are only eight digits, three bits (23 = 8) of the binary number system can convert any octal number to a binary number. And the larger binary number can be reduced by its use. Three binary digits are called single octal digits.

**Decimal Number Systems :-**

The decimal number system consists of ten digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9), so its base is 10. In this number system, the maximum value of a digit is ‘9’ and the minimum value is ‘0’. The position of each digit in the decimal number represents a specific power of the base (10) of the number system. This number system is widely used in our daily life. It can represent any numerical value. This is called decimal number system.

**Hexadecimal Number Systems :-**

The hexadecimal number system consists of 16 digits that range from 0 to 9 and from A to F. Therefore, its basis is 16. The letters A to F represent 10 to 15 decimal numbers. Each (16) digit in a hexadecimal number represents a specific power. Since there are only sixteen digits, the four bits (24 = 16) of the binary number system can convert any hexadecimal number to a binary number. It is also called an alphanumeric number because it uses both numeric digits and letters.